Sep 1 2017 | Focus

CLEAN ENERGY

India is the seventh largest producer of hydroelectric power in the world. As of 30 April 2017, the installed utility-scale hydroelectric capacity in India was 44,594 MW, amounting to 13.5% of its total utility power generation capacity. Hydropower is one of the oldest sources of energy harnessed by mankind since thousand of years, initially to turn paddle wheels to help grind grain.

MAJOR COMPONENTS
The hydro power plant mainly uses a dam on a river which is primarily used to store water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity. Hydroelectric power is produced from moving water.

The volume of the water flow and the change in elevation (or fall) from one point to another determine the amount of available energy in moving water. The electricity generated is transferred to the communities through transmission lines and the water is released back into the lakes, streams or rivers. Water is used and not consumed in case of hydro power. It is the safest and pollution free source of power generation.

The major components of a Hydroelectric Power Plant are:- 1. Dam/Barrage Head works i.e. power intake, head regulator and desilting chambers etc. 2. Head race tunnels/channels. 3. Surge shaft/surge chambers. 4. Pressure shaft/Penstock. 5. Underground and surface power house. 6. Tailrace channel or tailrace tunnel.



INSTALLED CAPACITY
Hydropower installed capacity across the world is 1.21 TW. According to World Energy Council, hydropower is the leading renewable source for electricity generation across the world, supplying 71% of all renewable electricity. It has reached 1,064 GW of installed capacity in 2016 amounting to 16.4% of the world’s electricity generation from all sources. Hydro Projects are classified based on Installed Capacity: Micro: upto 100 KW, Mini: 101KW to 2 MW, Small: 2 MW to 25 MW, Mega: Hydro projects with installed capacity >= 500 MW, Thermal Projects with installed capacity >=1500 MW

CAPITAL INTENSIVE
The hydropower generation is highly capital-intensive with hardly any recurring cost. It is cheaper as compared to coal and gas fired power plants. The oldest Hydropower power plant in India is in Darjeeling District of West Bengal state. It's installed capacity is 130KW and was commissioned in the year 1897. The hydropower generation potential of India is around 1,45,000 MW. At 60% load factor, it can meet the demand of around 85,000 MW. So far around 26 per cent of the potential has been exploited.

GOVERNMENT FOCUS ON RE
The Government of India is laying special emphasis on harnessing renewable sources of energy in order to accomplish twin objective of safeguarding the environment and reducing dependency on fossil fuel. The per capita electricity consumption is only one fifth of the world average. The country’s present consumption is about 1150 BU and is likely to reach 1570 BU by 2022. The Government has set a target of 175 GW renewable power installed capacity by the end of 2022. This includes 60 GW from wind power, 100 GW from solar power, 10 GW from biomass power and 5 GW from small hydro power.

RE Potential
India has an estimated renewable energy potential of about 900 GW from commercially exploitable sources viz. Wind – 102 GW (at 80 meter mast height); Small Hydro – 20 GW; Bio-energy – 25 GW; and 750 GW solar power, assuming 3% wasteland.

 
TARIFF WAR
Day-to-day fall in the solar and wind power tariff, it has become challenging for power producers who are using is adding stress on the other sources of energy as far pricing is concerned and forcing the sectoral players to come out with sustainable and low cost renewable power generation solution. India has embarked upon a massive programme to provide 24x7 power across the country by 2019.

CAPACITY ADDITION IN 12TH PLAN
During the 12th Plan period (2012-17), a capacity addition of about 88928.2 MW against the target of 88537 MW from conventional sources have been achieved till 31st October, 2016 and about 21,128 MW against the target of 30000 MW from renewable sources have been achieved till 30th September, 2016.

REGENERATION TARGET

Source

2017-18 (in MW)

2018-19 (in MW)

Solar Power

15,000

16,000

Wind

4600

5200

Biomass

750

850

Small Hydro

100

100

Grand Total

20450*

22150*

HYDRO FACTS
In Hydropower sector, 13 hydro stations, having total installed capacity of 1949 MW, are likely to be commissioned, out of which 5 projects with installed capacity of 320 MW have already been commissioned till 31.10.2016. Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) of 12 Hydroelectric Projects, with an aggregate installed capacity of 7,165 MW are under examination in CEA. The total power generated by hydropower projects in the country from 1st April, 2016 to 31st October, 2016 is 88306.78 MU (excluding power imported from Bhutan which is 4908.67 MU). The Union Cabinet approved proposal for amendments in the Power Tariff Policy on 20.1.2016. Resolution issued on 28.1.2016. These amendments are in the direction to motivate power producers to harness the hydro energy along with other renewable sources. As per the amendments, Hydro projects continued to be exempted from competitive bidding upto 15th August 2022.

HYDRO PROJECTS IN SLOW LANE
Minister of State (IC) for Power, Coal, New & Renewable Energy and Mines, Piyush Goyal, in a written reply to a question in Rajya Sabha has recently informed about the status of hydro-electric projects in the country. The minister has stated that presently 41 H.E.P. (above 25 MW), aggregating to 11792.5 MW, are under construction in the country. All the above projects are running behind schedule due to various reasons including natural calamities, geological factors, delays in forest clearances & land acquisition and law & order problems.

EXPECTED COMMISSIONING
NHPC, major hydro power producer of the country, is scheduled to generate 4458.69 Million Units (MUs) additional power (based on design energy) from two of its present under construction hydro projects, viz., Parbati-II H.E.P (800 MW) in Himachal Pradesh, and Kishanganga H.E.P (330 MW) in Jammu & Kashmir. Parbati project is scheduled to be commissioned in October, 2018 while Kishanganga is targeted by January, 2018.

FUTURE OUTLOOK
With the entire focus of the Government having shifted to Solar, the hydropower sector so far is not receiving enough attention. Power Project Monitoring Panel (PPMP), being set up by the Ministry of Power, independently monitors the progress of the hydro projects. Central Electricity Authority (CEA) is monitoring the under construction hydropower projects (above 25 MW) in pursuance of Section 73 (f) of Electricity Act, 2003. The progress of each project is monitored continuously through site visits, interaction with the developers & other stake holders. Despite all the above monitoring, the output on the ground is not encouraging. The Hydro power generation needs a bigger push from the Government on the lines of Solar to have an impact on the overall energy mix of the nation.


Ministry of New & Renewable Energy

Programme / Scheme wise Physical Progress in 2017-18 & cumulative upto the month of June, 2017

Sector

FY- 2017-18

Cumulative Achievements

Target

Achievement (April - March, 2018)

(as on 30.06.2017)

I.   GRID-INTERACTIVE POWER (CAPACITIES IN MW)

Wind Power

4000.00

228.40

32508.17

Solar Power

10000.00

825.99

13114.82

Small Hydro Power

200.00

4.70

4384.55

BioPower (Biomass & Gasification and Bagasse Cogeneration) #

340.00

0.00

8181.70

Waste to Power

10.00

0.00

114.08

Total

14550.00

1059.09

58303.32

II.  OFF-GRID/ CAPTIVE POWER (CAPACITIES IN MWEQ)

Waste to Energy

15.00

2.20

173.29

Biomass(non-bagasse) Cogeneration

60.00

0.00

651.91

Biomass Gasifiers

7.50

0.00

161.45

Aero-Genrators/Hybrid systems

.50

0.00

3.15

SPV Systems

100.00

40.34

502.88

Total

183.00

42.54

1492.68

III.  OTHER RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

Family Biogas Plants (in Lakhs)

1.10

0.00

49.56*

Water Mills / Micro Hydel (Nos.)

150/25

0.00

2690/72



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