India is the seventh largest producer of hydroelectric power in the world. As of 30 April 2017, the installed utility-scale hydroelectric capacity in India was 44,594 MW, amounting to 13.5% of its total utility power generation capacity. Hydropower is one of the oldest sources of energy harnessed by mankind since thousand of years, initially to turn paddle wheels to help grind grain.
The hydro power plant mainly uses a dam on a river which is primarily used to store water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity. Hydroelectric power is produced from moving water.
The volume of the water flow and the change in elevation (or fall) from one point to another determine the amount of available energy in moving water. The electricity generated is transferred to the communities through transmission lines and the water is released back into the lakes, streams or rivers. Water is used and not consumed in case of hydro power. It is the safest and pollution free source of power generation.
The major components of a Hydroelectric Power Plant are:- 1. Dam/Barrage Head works i.e. power intake, head regulator and desilting chambers etc. 2. Head race tunnels/channels. 3. Surge shaft/surge chambers. 4. Pressure shaft/Penstock. 5. Underground and surface power house. 6. Tailrace channel or tailrace tunnel.
2017-18 (in MW)
2018-19 (in MW)
In Hydropower sector, 13 hydro stations, having total installed capacity of 1949 MW, are likely to be commissioned, out of which 5 projects with installed capacity of 320 MW have already been commissioned till 31.10.2016. Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) of 12 Hydroelectric Projects, with an aggregate installed capacity of 7,165 MW are under examination in CEA. The total power generated by hydropower projects in the country from 1st April, 2016 to 31st October, 2016 is 88306.78 MU (excluding power imported from Bhutan which is 4908.67 MU). The Union Cabinet approved proposal for amendments in the Power Tariff Policy on 20.1.2016. Resolution issued on 28.1.2016. These amendments are in the direction to motivate power producers to harness the hydro energy along with other renewable sources. As per the amendments, Hydro projects continued to be exempted from competitive bidding upto 15th August 2022.
HYDRO PROJECTS IN SLOW LANE
Minister of State (IC) for Power, Coal, New & Renewable Energy and Mines, Piyush Goyal, in a written reply to a question in Rajya Sabha has recently informed about the status of hydro-electric projects in the country. The minister has stated that presently 41 H.E.P. (above 25 MW), aggregating to 11792.5 MW, are under construction in the country. All the above projects are running behind schedule due to various reasons including natural calamities, geological factors, delays in forest clearances & land acquisition and law & order problems.
NHPC, major hydro power producer of the country, is scheduled to generate 4458.69 Million Units (MUs) additional power (based on design energy) from two of its present under construction hydro projects, viz., Parbati-II H.E.P (800 MW) in Himachal Pradesh, and Kishanganga H.E.P (330 MW) in Jammu & Kashmir. Parbati project is scheduled to be commissioned in October, 2018 while Kishanganga is targeted by January, 2018.
With the entire focus of the Government having shifted to Solar, the hydropower sector so far is not receiving enough attention. Power Project Monitoring Panel (PPMP), being set up by the Ministry of Power, independently monitors the progress of the hydro projects. Central Electricity Authority (CEA) is monitoring the under construction hydropower projects (above 25 MW) in pursuance of Section 73 (f) of Electricity Act, 2003. The progress of each project is monitored continuously through site visits, interaction with the developers & other stake holders. Despite all the above monitoring, the output on the ground is not encouraging. The Hydro power generation needs a bigger push from the Government on the lines of Solar to have an impact on the overall energy mix of the nation.
Ministry of New & Renewable Energy
Programme / Scheme wise Physical Progress in 2017-18 & cumulative upto the month of June, 2017
Achievement (April - March, 2018)
(as on 30.06.2017)
I. GRID-INTERACTIVE POWER (CAPACITIES IN MW)
Small Hydro Power
BioPower (Biomass & Gasification and Bagasse Cogeneration) #
Waste to Power
II. OFF-GRID/ CAPTIVE POWER (CAPACITIES IN MWEQ)
Waste to Energy
III. OTHER RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS
Family Biogas Plants (in Lakhs)
Water Mills / Micro Hydel (Nos.)